L.S. Cousins: научная хронология Тхеравады

L.S. Cousins: научная хронология Тхеравады, Палийская школа младше школы Нагарджуны
Язык Палийского канона ("нормативный пали") возник в 3-4 веке нашей эры.
Тамрашатия это Тамрапарния.Тамрашатия - школа первых веков нашей эры.

L.S. Cousins

On the Vibhajjavādins: The Mahiṃsāsaka, Dhammaguttaka, Kassapiya and Tambapaṇṇiya branches of the ancient Theriyas
Buddhist Studies Review, Jan 1, 2001

"Vibhajjavadin is the historically correct term for a viewpoint which was adopted by the common ancestors of four of the classical schools of the early centuries CE: the Dhammaguttikas, located mainly in the North-West of the Indian subcontinent but spreading along the Central Asian trade routes; the Kassapiyas, probably located in the same area; the Mahisasakas, there and in parts of mainland India; and the Tambapanniyas, strongly established in Ceylon but active also in the Andhra region and other parts of South India and at some point spreading across South-East Asia. The name Vibhajjav!din remains current during all or most of the first half of the first millennium CE"

‘Tambapanniya and Tāmraśātiya’, Journal of Buddhist Studies, XI 2013, 21–46.

"The earliest list of Buddhist schools, extant in versions of the treatise attributed to *Vasumitra, in Pali and in several other related forms, does not distinguish groups among the different Theriya/Sthavir(iy)a fraternities. It is therefore only in the lists preserved in the *Tarka-jvālā attributed to *Bhavya that we first find a group of schools explicitly designated as Vibhajyavādin.1 Among them is a school whose name is restored (from Tibetan) as Tāmraśāṭiya. Scholars have differed as to whether this name refers to one or more of the schools of ancient Sinhalese Buddhism or to a (perhaps related) fraternity of mainland origin. In this article I examine the Greek, Pali and Sanskrit evidence for the usage and meaning of Tambapaṇṇi and related words. I then turn to epigraphic sources which confirm that the ‘Tambapaṇṇakas’ were part of the Theriya tradition and probably linked to the Vibhajjavādins. In the final part of this article I conclude that a variant form of the name Tambapaṇṇi which would be Sanskritized as *Tāmravarnya or similar has given rise to explanations of the meaning as ‘red-coloured’ or ‘copper-coloured’. This in turn has led either to a new Sanskrit form Tāmraśāṭiya or to a Tibetan rendering which later produced a back- formation to Tāmraśāṭiya in the Mahāvyutpatti"

(P.S. Тамрашатия в схеме возникновения буддийских школ по Бхавье (6-7 век) является дочерней от Сарвастивады школой. Тамрашатия нигде в древних источниках не указана дочерней от Хаймаваты школой либо первой традицией Стхавир. Исторически, это школа первых веков нашей эры, по L.S. Cousins.)
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Буддизм - система учений созданная Буддой Шакьямуни в 6 веке до нашей эры в Индии. В наше время буддизм распространен в странах Азии, также учение начало проникновение на запад (Россия, Европа, Америки) где в данный момент создано и создаются многочисленные центры передачи и сохранения учений.
Условно говоря буддизм можно разделить на 3 колесницы - Тхеравада (Хинаяна), Махаяна
 и Ваджраяна.
Основной практикой буддизма является медитация.